Skip to Main Content

Economic Growth

  • Brett Serwalt posted an article
    Vanuatu Graduates from "Least Developed Country" Status {Read Our 5-Minute Explainer!} see more

    Title: "Vanuatu Graduated! Our 5-Minute Explainer"

    Author: Brett Serwalt 

    Source: United Nations (various pages)

    Published: January 5th, 2021

    Brief: Vanuatu graduated from "Least Developed Country" status on December 4th. Learn what that means in this 5-minute explainer. 

     

     

    Some good news in case you missed it!

    Vanuatu graduated from the United Nation's Least Developed Country (LDC) status on December 4th, 2020. This hard-won achievement comes despite the growing impacts of natural disasters and economic turmoil due to Covid-19. Graduation also brings new challenges for Vanuatu's future. 

     

    Read More in Our 5-Minute Explainer Below: 

     


    WHAT IS "LDC" STATUS?

     

    United Nations Definition:

    "LDC's are low-income countries confronting severe structural impediments to sustainable development. They are highly vulnerable to economic and environmental shocks and have low levels of human assets." 

    The list was created in 1971 as an acknowledgment by the international community that unique support measures are needed. 

    ➤  Vanuatu was added in 1985

    ➤  Currently, there are 46 countries on the list.

    ➤  There are no other UN country categories. 

    ➤  The IMF has other categories, such as "emerging markets

     


    THE CRITERIA.

     

    Committee for Development Policy (CDP)

    The CDP conducts reviews triennially to make recommendations to the General Assembly on inclusion/graduation of eligible countries. They evaluate three criteria:

    ➤  Gross National Income (GNI) per capita.

    ➤  Human Asset Index (HAI) of 6 indicators in health & education.

    ➤  Economic & Environmental Vulnerability Index (EVI) of 8 indicators. 

    ➤  To learn criteria specifics, click here

    Check It Out ➤  Three countries, Ghana, Papua New Guinea, and Zimbabwe reject the criteria and decline to be included in the index. 

     


    THE BENEFITS.

     

    International Support Measures

    International support measures have been developed for LDCs regarding international agreements, as well as with individual countries and institutions.

     

    For Example

     

     


    GRADUATION.

     

    How To Graduate from LDC Status

    The country must meet two (2) of the three (3) criteria at two (2) consecutive triennial reviews by the CDP. Graduation thresholds are set higher for graduation than for inclusion as a means of helping ensure graduation is sustainable

    Example: Income (GNI) to be included on the list is anything less than $1,018. To graduate, however, GNI must have a 3-year average 20% higher, or $1,222.

     

    Check It Out ➤  Vanuatu's path to graduation spanned 14 years. Extreme vulnerability to natural disasters slowed the process and remains a serious challenge.

     

    Timeline of Vanuatu's graduation

     

    Check It Out ➤  In 1994, Botswana was the first to graduate in. Angola is the next to graduate, in 2021, followed by Bhutan in 2023.

     


    IMPACTS OF GRADUATION.

     

    Smooth Transition Period

    After graduation, and following a planned "smooth transition period," the country will no longer benefit from the LDC support mechanisms. The implications are unique to each country and may include:

    ➤  Major exports may face significant tariffs for the first time.

    ➤  Preferential treatment for WTO commitments will end.

    ➤  Support measures for capacity-building or climate adaptation may end.

    On the Plus Side...

    ➤  Graduation can boost national pride and international sentiment.

    ➤  Countries can benefit from perceptions of success.

    ➤  Foreign investment may increase as perceptions improve.

    "Impact Assessments" are prepared for each graduating country and specific tools and programs exist to help countries navigate the transition

    Learn more by clicking HERE for the United Nations landing page for LDCs. 

    Learn more by clicking HERE for Vanuatu's comparative data for 2020.

     


    CONTINUE YOUR SUPPORT.

     

     

    Cyclone Harold Recovery Fund

    DONATE

     


    THANK YOU.

     

    Please Reach Out

    I hope you found this brief explainer interesting and helpful. If you have any comments or feedback, I would be happy to hear from you!

    Please Email ➤  President@FOV.org

    Thank you for your continued support of FOV2 and your love for the people and culture of Vanuatu!